A Closing Preface
I must confess that four months ago when I chose to tackle this subject and new field of study for a blog-post or two—that turned out to be four—I had little idea it would be so laborious and challenging for me. Not only was it formidable over time, but it was equally demanding of quality representation, of which I feel I have failed or sacrificed in some ways. For that I apologize. I likely bit-off much more than I could chew. And though my current personal situation has made my time reading, researching, blog drafting, blog writing, and publishing difficult and quite limited, I do hope this conclusion is sufficient enough to glean from the whole, some expansion on a little known, little taught or discussed subject: ignorance. If nothing else, I hope these four parts have invoked a deep curiosity to learn and know more about what we don’t know, for it is great, it is endless, and paradoxically attainable.
∼ ∼ ∼ § ∼ ∼ ∼
Previously in Part III, I examined the colorful ways we fabricate facts, or our conscious intentional lying, and how to discern and reveal their motives and utilization. I also covered how North and South American indigenous fossil knowledge and their worlds became lost or entirely omitted from Euro-American archaeological records. Then finished with how to understand the benefits and advantages of historical-interdisciplinary hindsight. In doing so this groundwork offers a comprehensive, enlarged intellectual body of reliable context as well as a necessary reversal of or counter to explicit and implicit ignorance in the U.S.
In this conclusion I want to very briefly touch on white, or Anglo/Caucasian ignorance, explore the social theorems of ignorance, and then ask Where are America’s public intellectuals, who might they be, and why today are they few and far between? and provide plausible answers. Let’s jump right in.
A few summers back as my two kids, my Mom, and my sister and I were seated around the dinner table, the discussion turned to American history, a subject that mostly interested my 15-year old son, but usually made my 22-year old daughter, Mom, and sister roll their eyes. When I made my point that our nation’s White House, the Capitol building, and some other government buildings were built by African-American slaves, I got facial expressions of pause, silence, and astonishment. Their faces said it all. As a state certified educator in Texas, I was not surprised by their baffled, yet silent responses. This tidbit of historical fact and its implications generally does not make it into state-approved classroom textbooks nor is it required by the state’s core-curriculum as critical learning. Thus, we have a classic case of anglo-caucasian (white) ignorance. I rather like this introduction…
It’s a big subject. How much time do you have?
It’s not enough.
Ignorance is usually thought of as the passive obverse to knowledge,
the darkness retreating before the spread of Enlightenment.
Imagine an ignorance that resists.
Imagine an ignorance that fights back.
Imagine an ignorance militant, aggressive, not to be intimidated,
an ignorance that is active, dynamic, that refuses to go quietly—
not at all confined to the illiterate and uneducated but propagated
at the highest levels of the land, indeed presenting itself unblushingly
— Charles W. Mills
Professor of philosophy at the City University of New York, Dr. Charles W. Mills believes by clarifying and demarcating historical white domination and its ramifications, as well as examining the individual and social processes of cognition with regard to race, we can start to understand how best to achieve multiracial enlightenment that garners short-, mid-, and long-term benefits not just for a few, but for all humanity.
White Domination & Ramifications
Dr. Mills finds ten components to clarification and demarcation. I will point out four I find particularly important.
- Race as a cognitive phenomena historized — white domination has been and still is a social-structure, not a physio-biological structure. “Whites” did not exist in the ancient world.
- Leaving white paradigms — “White” in white ignorance doesn’t need to be confined to just white people. To a greater or lesser extent this has existed due to power relations and patterns of ideological hegemony.
- Male ignorance — ignorance of the male gender must be analyzed equally as it is far more ancient, going back to the very origins of patriarchy.
- Avoiding false beliefs — gaining a broader understanding of white ignorance is not only sociological, but normative too. Flawed patterns of cognition are promoted or propagandized by certain social models and group membership as are truthful-moral ones.
Individual & Social Processes of Cognition
Before getting into Dr. Mills’ work below, watch this 6-minute video. It is a prime example of Memory and Testimony discussed below and how to incorporate it into social cognition:
An examination of white supremacy and its historical dominance, injustice, and ignorance cannot be done without understanding the influences of individual and social processes of cognition. Separating out these various components can be demanding for they are in perpetual interaction with each other. For example, when an individual discerns, they do so with sensors that have been socialized. Keeping this in mind, Dr. Mills analyzes five dynamics that I will summarize:
- Perception — in general, perceptions and conceptions are practically one in the same, so tightly related that often they’re indistinguishable. Individuals do not create these categories, we absorb them from our cultural contexts. Two prime examples are the world’s continents, they’re sizes, and the term savages and its origin and context. They beg the questions, Why is Europe a continent and say India or Eurasia are not? And savage originated from Anglo-French cultures in the 13th century, the Age of Exploration and Colonization by European superpowers, and implies a person/people of uncivilized, primitive, dumb behavior and inferior to the designator(s). Why is this context assigned to savage? Does it justify imperialism, conquest, and domination? The context of savage continued into the 18th century and found its way into one of our most enduring U.S. documents:
When Thomas Jefferson excoriates the “merciless Indian Savages” in the Declaration of Independence, then, neither he nor his readers will experience any cognitive dissonance with the earlier claims about the equality of all “men,” since savages are not “men” in the full sense. Locked in a different temporality, incapable of self-regulation by morality and law, they are humanoid but not human.
— Charles W. Mills
- Conception — this aligns us to our known world. The unknown world, however, is assessed and judged not with the discreetly detached concept, but viewed and judged through the concept. Very rarely does an individual resist this societal bias. And here is the baffling irony of this egocentric, white-centric condition which surrounds the word savage:
In the classic period of European expansionism, it then becomes possible to speak with no sense of absurdity of “empty” lands that are actually teeming with millions of people, of “discovering” countries whose inhabitants already exist, because the non-white Other is so located in the guiding conceptual array that different rules apply. Even seemingly straightforward empirical perception will be affected—the myth of a nation of hunters in contradiction to widespread Native American agriculture that saved the English [e.g. Jamestown] colonists’ lives, the myth of stateless savages in contradiction to forms of government from which the white Founders arguably learned, the myth of a pristine wilderness in contradiction to a humanized landscape transformed by thousands of years of labor (Jennings 1976). In all of these cases, the concept is driving the perception, with whites aprioristically intent on denying what is before them.
— Charles W. Mills
- Memory — it is sadly ironic that as I get to memory of the individual and/or social cognitive process that events such as those in Charlottesville, Virginia, Aug. 12th occurred. It reiterates just how crucial it is to understand the fluid interconnectedness of these five components, including memory, and how it relates to white knowing and unknowing due to denial of requisite facts. While understanding collective memory, we must also understand collective amnesia. They always go hand-in-hand. We remember the Holocaust primarily because Hitler and Nazi Germany lost the war. But what about the Pequots, the Nama, the Tasmanians, the Beothuks, the Congolese, the Hereros, or the Armenians? What about the Native American Cherokees or any of the over 200 tribes on the continent? What about 19th century antebellum slavery, killing rebellions such as Nat Turner’s, and the atrocities throughout the American Civil War? Today, over seven generations later, Americans still confront their historical identity and memory over the Standing Rock Reservation oil-pipeline and Charlottesville, VA over a Robert E. Lee statue and what it means.
As the individual represses unhappy or embarrassing memories, that may also reveal a great deal about [their] identity, about who [they are], so in all societies, especially those structured by domination, the socially recollecting “we” will be divided, and the selection will be guided by different identities, with one group suppressing precisely what another wishes to commemorate. Thus there will be both official and counter-memory, with conflicting judgments about what is important in the past and what is unimportant, what happened and does matter, what happened and does not matter, and what did not happen at all.
— Charles W. Mills
- Testimony — How do you know your exact birth date? Your knowledge of your birthday is most certainly told to you by those there in the delivery room, your mother and father, and perhaps doctors and/or nurses there at the time. Hence, your beliefs about your birth time, place, month, and year are through testimony. We are quite dependent on others for what we know and this most certainly involves elaborations of social epistemology. Those elaborations also come from other previous individual and social epistemic elaborations and so on. In cases of veracity and neutrality, it bears significant impact to ask ‘testimony by whom and for what (possible) interests gained or lost?‘
- Motivational Group Interests — these can be found in varying strengths with any political, religious, economic, and/or sports groups with common interests. What these sorts of groups demonstrate are what is commonly known in cognitive, developmental, social, clinical, and neuropsychology as hot cognition (as opposed to cold/unemotional) associated with physiological arousal responding more to environmental stimuli. Peer-assimilation is another aspect of hot cognition. This certainly applies to racial grouping and “color-blindness” as well.
Though he speaks primarily on the African-American plight in the U.S., in this following video-clip Harvard University Fellow and MIT Professor Noam Chomsky talks about white domination and racism from the historical record. This really applies to all non-whites in America and the world, does it not?
Social Theorems of Ignorance
Is ignorance simply the absence of knowledge? The sum of society’s ignorance is much greater than the sum of our knowledge. Yet, how much do we really know about social or collective ignorance? Where does social-collective ignorance come from? How much do we impose it upon someone or upon ourselves? What role does social-collective ignorance play in interactions, group relations, in institutions, in civil, business, and criminal law, and managing risks? Typically our societal norms give negative connotations to ignorance, but when might it be preferrable not to know something? Can it be a virtue?
Dr. Michael Smithson, Professor of Psychology at the Australian National University, has been working in the area of uncertainty and ignorance for many years. He takes an interdisciplinary approach to socially produced uncertainty and ignorance and believes one must begin with defining what social ignorance is and is not.
Socially Produced Ignorance: What It Is and Isn’t
Social ignorance is 1) emerging, it is 2) partially constructed by society, and it is 3) imposed. It is manipulated deliberately or as a by-product of some social movement or process. It is also typically at a macro-level of large groups within power relations. As far as how kinetic ignorance is managed (4) it is typically at the micro-level with individuals and how those individuals conceptualize, represent, negotiate, and respond to ignorance. Thus, the managing agent is often indirect or as a spectator concerning the thinking and behavior of ignorance. These are four theorems of social ignorance.
Social ignorance is not the external world and how it arises in non-social settings. For example, the non-social settings would be science and the limits of science. It also includes epistemological and religious frameworks that make assertions about non-knowledge or meta-knowledge in exogenous non-social terms. It is not a managing under kinetic ignorance either. In other words, how people/groups think and act in uncertain environments, and not artificially generated under theory.
There are at least five different negotiated ignorances between social (or at least interpersonal) arrangements of ignorance. A sixth could be time, or the lack of time, to adequately understand dynamics of an event, place, or person, but for the sake of time (no pun intended), I will very briefly cover these five:
Specialization — is simply an admittance there is too much for any one person to learn everything exhaustively. Hence, spreading the perceived risks can be achieved in three ways: 1) diversified learning rather than direct or narrowed learning, 2) therefore, concurrently diversified ignorance is created, and 3) acquired knowledge is also diversified via social collaboration.
Privacy — another social ignorance arrangement which is not necessarily controlled access to information by others about self, but can also be consensual with trusted persons or experts. Secrecy is imposed unilaterally, but privacy involves levels of risk. And trust is interconnected within organized specialization.
Trust — is a state of perceived vulnerability or risk. Dr. Smithson (on Yamagishi) elaborates:
“[Toshio] Yamagishi and his colleagues argue that trust and “commitment formation” are alternative ways of reducing the risk of being exploited in social interactions. Commitment formation involves the development of mutual monitoring and powers to sanction and reward each other’s behavior. However, the reduction of transaction costs in commitment formation via uncertainty reduction comes at a price, namely the difficulty and costliness in exiting from the relationship and foregoing opportunities to form other relationships. Trust, on the other hand, entails running the risk of being exploited but increases opportunities by rendering the truster more mobile and able to establish cooperative relations more quickly. Trust, therefore, is both an example of a social relation that requires tolerance of ignorance and also trades undesired uncertainty (the risk of being exploited) against desired uncertainty (freedom to seize opportunities for new relations).”
Politeness — is another example of how social relations trade on ignorance. Within formal public conversations people typically don’t expect to first place their hand on a bible and state “the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.” The strategies a talker may utilize are varied in creating disinformation, e.g. promoting a false impression of approval, or agreement, or offer tactful brevity, vagueness, or ambiguity. However, this latter strategy is not always negative because it could nurture healthy adaptability or change due to diverse interpretations.
Legitimation — social ignorance is also used in a number of facades to vindicate inaction, keeping the status quo (also known as business as usual), opportunism, evasion of responsibility or liability, and risk management strategies. Our American legal differences between civil cases versus criminal cases, as one example, are where a verdict in the former can be given on probabilities and in the latter it must be given “beyond reasonable doubt.“
“Licit” actions and choices done on the basis of social ignorance are abundant in our mundane life as well. As previously discussed in this series, legitimizing high-level federal policy change, or non-change, use (abuse?) the precautionary principle, e.g. climate change counter-measures.
Is Social Ignorance Always An Insight-Deficit?
Contrary to popular belief, ignoramuses are not always at a disadvantage. There are cases where they are better off than very knowledgeable people. Case and point, if you could be told exactly when and how you were going to die, would you want to know? Why or why not? Would you want your spouse and children to know the details of your death? Why or why not? Often in the field of counseling where doctor-patient confidentiality existed, I found myself in the position of aiding social ignorance between spouses, family members, employers or a circle of friends for legitimate reasons, e.g. one spouse’s history of unfaithfulness, in order to maintain necessary therapeutic stability. Many spouses/partners don’t care to know intimate details of former lovers/spouses. Dr. Lael Schooler and Ralph Hertwig, both of the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, assert from their research that forgetting facilitates the use of inferential heuristics that also trade on environmental structures.
What I hope has been adequately conveyed here is that ignorance, particularly social ignorance, is quite prevalent. It exists practically everywhere, including with yourself. It is predominantly socially structured. Accordingly, it deserves as much attention, monitoring, and updating as one’s repository of knowledge. This, our social and individual human ignorance-condition, I hope would conflate wise, cunning humility and not inflated arrogance. Therefore, how might we as social parts of a whole get regular checkups, quarterly or annual appraisals of our cunning humility and/or inflated arrogance? Glad you asked!
America’s Public Intellectuals – Questions
What does intellectualism mean? After this four-part series, is it possible for intellectualism to thrive and coexist with ignorance? Should that even be questioned? Can intellectualism guide ignorance and ignorance guide intellectualism offering more balance, more tolerance? In our modern age of technology and data-overload, are we too knowledgeable, too informed?
Today, we are not necessarily uninformed, but so over-informed it forces our cognitive capacities to seek out preferable trigger-topics and information that bolster our own perspective. That is most certainly a self-imposed ignorance and to degrees social ignorance. On the aforementioned section of social ignorance, sociologists define that as a neo-tribalism tagged with near-fanatical insistence on cohesion and monism in a world, its Nature and fauna that is anything but monistic or binary. Within this neo-tribalism, humans — perhaps just advanced primates at this point? — historically have resorted to bullying and moral castigation to keep their own status quo. But at what cost? Many public intellectuals agree: the egghead is dead, replaced by chest-beating activists. That may be true.
If our nation’s Founding Fathers were alive today, they would almost certainly be distraught and aghast at the loud polarity and lack of common interests. This isn’t to say those members of the 1787 Constitutional Convention, lasting a miserable 116 steamy days and nights, did not have their heated differences. Indeed they did. However, those resilient intellectuals mixed daily with their communities and adversaries; they had no choice really but to learn basic etiquette, tolerance, compromise, and mutual understanding and do it face-to-face. Those differences, conflicts, and resolutions took enormous amounts of highly skilled dialogue, negotiation, candor, and listening as they did expressing.
Fortunately, our modern intellectuals are still around, as seen in the Stargazer’s Guide image, as well as several of their interdisciplinary colleagues I’ve included throughout this four-part series. They too could easily be included on the map in their respective fields. Perhaps they are not as recognizable or accessible today because technology is increasingly finding intrusive ways to get in front of our faces and into our schedules, not weekly or daily, but hourly! Too much information-knowledge is just as bad for us individually — and potentially within a social framework of influence — as ignorance is because covertly hyper-knowledge fosters more risks that would otherwise be spread-out, diversified to minimize risks or learning-bankruptcy.
The difference between intellectualism (knowledge) then in 1787 and now (over-knowledge), as I personally see it, is that whether opposing sides embrace it or not, we know a lot less than we think we do (ignorance). Arrogance with power is the chief combatant of agnotology and collaborative progress. To remain stagnant in current knowledge without diversifying and going into the darkness of ignorance and where it leads is to risk terminal illness at the hands of Nature, predatory Nature to be specific. That assured apathy (that all is known) will be especially lethal if we do not recognize, with no exceptions, that ignorance is an equal or greater dichotomy. An egalitarian dichotomy not to be feared, but merely appreciated, explored further, confronted if necessary, and thus made more commonly defined, inclusive of both individual and social frameworks.
Live Well — Love Much — Laugh Often — Learn Always
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>>> “If our nation’s Founding Fathers were alive today, they would almost certainly be distraught and aghast at the loud polarity and lack of common interests.”
Indeed. Superb conclusion to the series, Prof!
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Thank you kindly Robert. I hope I have done the subject some level of justice it richly deserves.
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Your quote about the Founding Fathers is absolutely false.
“Loud polarity and lack of common interests,” is an expression for factions, of which the Founders where completely aware.
Clearly you have never read the Federalist Papers.
I rarely express personal opinions. What I express comes from graduate school education in the history of West.
Perhaps you didn’t have the chance to read the entire paragraph or final section entitled America’s Public Intellectuals – Questions. That section about the Founding Fathers was alluding to the “heated differences” between great intellectuals expertly debating over life-values, attempts at unification, and men who possessed the skill-sets to grapple respectfully, understand adversaries, find “common interests” while living closely together, frequently face-to-face.
During the Founding Father’s time, to state the obvious, there was no social media, no televisions, no LACK OF regular public forums conducted in person as is sadly the case today. Consequently, too many American citizens have lost or allowed to deteriorate the face-to-face skills and eloquence required to find common interests (not factions) that America’s greatest intellectuals could share, help bridge, and teach the disadvantaged and poorly educated. Why would those great men do this for lower classes? Because in the long run it benefits everyone (of European descent at the time) and most all aspects of the privileged socioeconomic system — and I am excluding the reality, racism, and blatant inequality of slavery of course.
So to clarify, the part about the Founding Fathers was a contrast and comparison with today’s methods of finding (or not) enough common interests and why it is so difficult, in light of Charlottesville, VA for one example, to achieve peaceful solutions like the Founding Fathers hashed out regularly — again, excluding the wrongs of slavery and racism.
That is incorrect. I’m afraid you’ve made a foolish presumption when you could’ve just asked first.
History, including American, world, and ancient history, and all their many associated disciplines are my passions. Not only have I studied the Federalist Papers, but I have thoroughly enjoyed reading most all of the Founding Father’s personal memoirs and letters of correspondence to colleagues and opponents alike, even to their wives or children. This gives a superb wider-lens and context to the more commonly known limited classroom textbooks which only touch-on their writings and papers… like the Federalist Papers, but not the man. This is NOT to imply you’ve only done quick broad strokes of study SoM. If you have indeed completed related graduate studies of American (political) history, then I think you’d agree, immersing one’s self in those men’s PERSONAL lives, not just public life, offers greater understanding and meaning to the person, his time, his place, and his writings.
Have you studied (i.e. compared & contrasted) the MANY OTHER cultures, histories, civilizations, advancements, falls-failures, etc, besides just the West? If so, please list in detail or offer your Curriculum Vitae. I’m very curious sir. Thanks.
A nicely composed post, as usual.
But the philosophy of history, that history has color, creed and gender, is not only absurd but dangerous.
Out in the hinterland where the common people live, most people are just trying to get through the day.
Men and women of whatever make and model work together to earn a living, help each other and make their neighborhoods safe.
The very notion of “white ignorance” is racist, for ignorance has nothing to do with the color of a person’s skin.
Christian Western Civilization was built by the power of reason and religion, not on the distillation of bias (bigotry and stupidity).
First, thank you for the compliment SoM and for sharing your personal opinion.
No surprise, I avidly disagree with you 🙂 and would also retort that your above quote demonstrates the white ignorance perfectly, as does the well-documented history of blatant and covert racism. The use of the denial/non-issue tactic has been quite popular as well as abused for a long, long, long time by exactly those who claim it didn’t happen or no longer exists today. I think if you had been in Charlottesville, VA this past August 12th, 2017 defending those who were slandered, maimed, and murdered, as a decent, intelligent human being you’d change your attitude and perspective. It is not enough for Euro-American whites to simply be indifferent about historical racism, let alone modern racism or any forms of prejudice and discrimination. Violent discord and killing will only continue if racism isn’t dealt with honestly and reasonably, if I can borrow your word. But I know my views and perspective in this regard fall on deaf ears and a cold heart, so we can simply agree to disagree as “reasonable” men.
There are some strands of truth in that comment: “…the power of reason and religion“. I’d wager, as I’ve stated with you before, that Western Civilization’s origins began by the sheer power and unequivocal influence/domination of the Roman Empire over its approximate 1,500 years, NOT a religion, certainly NOT a fragmented unanimous religion. See my April 2011 post Constantine: Christianity’s True Catalyst/Christ for starters if you’re interested in fully understanding my point-of-view. I can provide more posts and/or links too if you prefer SoM.
Due to the void left by the end of Imperial Rome and no one dominate Western power to replace it, the Roman Catholic Church by default was able to maintain a societal order through the utter collapse and into the well-known, well-documented 300-400 year Dark Ages and Medieval period while the rest of the world progressed much more quickly in stature, domain, and wealth… until of course King Charlamagne. One example (out of many) of this rescue was the borrowing then use of Persian-Arabian mathematics, which helped pull the West out of self-inflicted savagery, ignorance, and persistent superstitions.
But again, I know there is no need to go into exhaustive historical depth with you — your opinions and perspective are firmly set and in stark contrast to my position and views, yes? 😉 Thanks for sharing your thoughts SoM.
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I second Bob’s observation, although I would say diversity was an unstated goal of the American experiment.
A quote popped into my head reading this, but I have no idea who to attribute it to: It’s hard to hate face-to-face.
Nice series, Professor. If in 20,000 years alien archaeologists scrape the earth for evidence of that weird superstitious naked ape who once dominated the surface of the planet, I hope they find this work.
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Oooo, so very true John, unless of course one is that stubborn, ancient superstitious primate that hasn’t evolved or has actually DEvolved. 😉
Thank you Sir for picking out one of the KEY points of the series: humanity needs, no… SURVIVES by fluid diversity on almost all and any level of life. We are most certainly an endangered species if we ever slip into monism or crude binarism. That is glaringly obvious.
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What creates ignorance? I don’t know and I don’t care.
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Hahahaha! Joking aside, your point — as a hermetically-sealed (arrogant?) closed mind — is wonderfully made Steve. 😉
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My attempt at a joke aside, recent studies show that people who are open to new experiences tend to be less ignorant and also rather liberal of mind. The religious base of the ignorant clan is undeniable. Religions do not want openness, openness of mind, or openness of experience. How many churches suggest their members go to other churches to see what is happening over there? How many encourage questioning scripture as to its authenticity, meaningfulness, and accuracy? Religion encourages closemindedness. (That old time religion … is good enough for me! Sing along if you will.)
Couldn’t agree more Sir. And if I may add a little twist to your points on a biological-cytological level…
If an entity or organism is not prepared to or is incapable of adapting, learning, and pushing its level of survivability, the entity/organism will indeed go extinct in this predacious Nature on Earth and perhaps too (probably?) in this Cosmos. To remain arrogantly stagnate in one’s own or familial-communal perceptions and intelligence-ignorance — if I may borrow Heraclitus’ reasoning — is to mimick Aesop’s wise fable of The Oak and the Reed. Who is who is pretty elementary to distinguish. 😉
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Of course, too much curiosity can get you killed (especially if you are a cat, for some strange reason), but I can’t imagine curiosity developed for no good reason.
Enjoying your blog, keep up the good work!
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Agreed Steve. And thank you for your feedback. It’s much appreciated coming from you.
“Contrary to popular belief, ignoramuses are not always at a disadvantage.” — Whew!
A superb series, Professor T, although I have needed extra Lavazza this Sunday morning to get sufficient a grip on your lengthy (concluding) part! — a late night, full of self-abuse and various ‘cocktails’, you understand.
Now, on (my) ignorance: I know I’m entirely alone in this, and also incorrect by all standard definitions, but, being the contrarian I am — “No, you’re not, Aitch!” — I think of it for the most part as a verb, not exclusively as a noun. I don’t exclusively, such as to say, ‘in total’, see ignorance as a lack of knowledge, as if that were a passive state of being, but rather as a volitional ignoring, an ignoration, which is the act of ignoring. The homophonous affix, or, if you will, the suffix, ‘-ance’, is defined as, ‘The action, state, or quality of doing something or of being something.’ Preceding this with ‘gno’, — as you well know/gno, the hypothetical source of the Sanskrit ‘jna’ — meaning ‘the knowing of’, or ‘to know’ (again, both an active state of being), suggests to me the volitional, verb-like interpretation of which I speak. This, in sum, I argue (albeit woefully thinly), validates my conception (according to your good self, also my ‘perception’) of the word.
Anyway, sod all that. Losing 1-0 to Stoke. Oh dear, oh dear . . . oh dear, dear me.
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Haha! Should I apologize for all your extra Lavazza, sleep deprivation, abuse, and cocky-tails? 😉
I cannot argue against your knowing/gnowing (or is that gnawing?), volitionals, and woeful summation. LOL Whew! Not sure I could repeat that again either! 😛 Nevertheless, I always appreciate your free-flowing insights and feedback. Thank you Sir!
Yes, my Gunners looked once again like they have the last 4-5 seasons? Grrrrrrrr. 😦
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